Many reasons could be given for this unemployment and under-employment. The first reason is explosion of population. The natural resources, the land, and means are the same. The population has increased from 36.1 crores in 1951 to 84.4 crores in 1961, i.e. more than double in four decades.
Secondly the modern industrial policies have shattered the village economy that was based on self-sufficiency. Cottage industries which were traditional occupations have died. Many villagers have migrated to cities and towns to work as labourers in factories. The third reason is the unsuitable educational system. It can only produce clerical personnel but not suitable workers. Those who come out of schools and colleges seek white=collared jobs and are not willing to be trained to work in blue-collared jobs. They have lost self-confidence and do not know the dignity of labour. They have neither the mental ability nor the manual skill to take up a productive job. The fourth reason is modern scientific inventions like computers, which replace manual labour in many fields. The fifth reason is the manpower resources are not planned according to the needs of the next decade.
Large scale industries are not a solution for a country like India which is densely populated. In some areas some are working for 12 hours a day, where two persons could easily work. Child labour, if given up would absorb some more unemployed. There are still areas like primary education, rural sanitation, and primary health services, where full employment had not taken place. There is a need to remove the existing barriers of States, Zones etc., which are now keeping away many skilled persons from employment.
'Back to villages' and 'take to Swadeshi' should be the slogans, if employment and under-employment are to be solved. We must ban the imports considerably and help the growth of indigenous industry. Education should be job-oriented. The disparity in pay and agricultural labourer should be reduced to the minimum. A man who does manual work and another who does mental work are equal in the matter of needs. Unless the disparity in income is reduced, people will not take up manual jobs.
There is need for a number of skilled workers at village level. Those with the minimum skill and knowledge in he fields of civil, mechanical and electrical engineering and those who are scientific and skillful in the areas of animal husbandry and agriculture, would prove to be assets. Poultry, piggery, sheep breeding, fisheries, sericulture, weaving etc., are the trades which could be scientifically developed at village level.
For women, weaving, tailoring, food processing, preservation, packing, marketing etc., could be taught for better employment. Self-confidence should be restored in youth and those capable should be allowed to help themselves in the field of small scale industries, with liberal grant of loans.
Although the government is doing its best to solve the problem of unemployment, more efforts are required to solve rural unemployment. Unless growth in population is sharply arrested, the problem of unemployment will never be solved.
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